GNSS Integrity for Railway Transportation
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, University of Pardubice, Pardubice, Czech Republic, Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: This article contains an analysis of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) integrity from a viewpoint of railway transportation. The integrity concept of functional EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) system is explained in detail and also the integrity mechanism of the future Galileo system is briefly outlined. In order to verify the theoretical conclusions, static measurements by means of EGNOS receiver in a safety mode have been performed. Selected experimental results are discussed.
KEY WORDS: GNSS integrity, railway, EGNOS, DGPS, GPS, Galileo.
Geographical Location of Depopulation Areas in the Czech Republic and its Dependence on Transport Infrastructure Part II: Case Studies
E. Drápela, Transport Research Centre, Brno, Czech Republic, Corresponding author: email@example.com
ABSTRACT: Location of settlement in important routes of transport was always one of the key factors of its prosperity. However, in the car-oriented world of today the distance factor is not so important for many people and they prefer to live in calm rural areas. Simultaneously, many rural areas in peripheral locations are affected by the emigration of inhabitants and global decay. This study explains how good transport infrastructure should be beneficial for rural areas and how it is in reality in the Czech Republic. The study is part of a larger body of research, based on the component analysis of the localization of depopulation areas in the Czech Republic over the years 1869 – 2010. The role of transport is documented, not only by the localization of transport infrastructure, but also by the duration and orientation of the commute to work. Theories and premises are supported by quantitative analysis in all municipalities in the Czech Republic and also by three in-depth case studies, oriented more on qualitative indicators.
KEY WORDS: transport geography, regional development, depopulation areas, transport infrastructure, mobility.
Estimation of Accident Frequency at Newly-built Roundabouts in the Czech Republic
P. Šenk* & J. Ambros, Transport Research Centre, Brno, Czech Republic, * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: Roundabouts have become one of the most popular traffic easing and safety improving measures implemented on roads in the Czech Republic. The decision on he ealization of each new roundabout should be based on the knowledge of the expected realization costs and benefits resulting from the future operation, especially changes in traffic and safety performance. This study introduces a negative binomial regression model that enables the quantification of the safety performance of roundabouts in terms of accident frequency in relation to their traffic and geometric characteristics. Model design and estimation of parameters is based on the sample of 90 roundabouts situated on all types of roads in the Czech Republic. Results suggest that the number of accidents depends on the number of lanes on entering arms, vehicle speed in the vicinity of roundabouts, width of traversable apron and, of course, also on the annual average daily traffic. Resulting model structure is in accordance with structures of accident prediction models used in other EU countries and the US. Certain differences can be found in the degree of effects of particular model variables.
KEY WORDS: accident prediction model, roundabout, negative binomial model.
Comparison of HIC Values during Train-Car Collisions
O. Fanta *, M. Hybner, F. Lopot, K. Jelen Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, Corresponding author: email@example.com, Z. Malkovský, VÚKV a.s., Bucharova 1314/8, 158 00 Prague, Czech Republic, H. Purš, Advanced Engineering, s.r.o., CAE Dep., Prague, Czech Republic
ABSTRACT: Accident statistics show that a collision of a train with a car has a significant share of the number of traffic accidents. It also ranks among the most tragic. Three crash tests were made simulating the side impact of a railway vehicle with a car on a level crossing to monitor the biomechanics of possible injury. This study pays particular attention to head injuries. Head acceleration in all three axes was captured on a mannequin during an impact with Skoda Superb and Skoda Favorit vehicles. The most common head injury criterion (HIC) was selected as a quantitative indicator for comparison. It transpired that the contact of the head with an element of the car interior, whether or not the out-of-position occurs during the impact, plays an important role in the severity of head injuries.
KEYWORDS: Biomechanics, head injury criterion, train-car collision, crash test.
Whiplash Injury and Head Injury Criterion during Deceleration
K. Jelen *, O. Fanta, R. Billich, D. Hadraba, P. Kubový, Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, * Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: Cervical spine injuries have become an urgent problem in modern society. Regardless of social status or background, the high rate of neck injuries is a serious healthcare issue worldwide. The cervical spine injury is mainly caused by external impact and is termed as whiplash injury. In addition, the head also performs a whiplash movement during rapid deceleration. The aim of this study is to monitor and describe physically the natural response of the head to rapid deceleration. The methodology of using an impact simulator was adopted for simulating a load which is applied to passengers wearing a seat belt in a head-on collision of a car at the speed of 30 km/h. Furthermore, a series of comparative tests of two versions (impact with and without a blindfold) were conducted to determine the influence of vision and consciousness on risk and the seriousness of trauma and the results were compared with measurements on a dummy.
KEYWORDS: Biomechanics, head injury, neck injury, whiplash, impact, deceleration.
The Role of Personality Qualities in Driving
M. Šucha* & M. Seitl, Department of Psychology, Philosophical Faculty, Palacky University in Olomouc, * Corresponding author: email@example.com
ABSTRACT: The main cause of traffic accidents is the human element. This implies that the most significant traffic safety factor is the driver’s behaviour and their psychological qualifications for driving (Antušek, 1998; Havlík, 2005; Stránský, 2000; Štikar, Hoskovec & Štikarová, 2003). Generally, the driver’s behaviour reflects their personality characteristics and the specific situation. The present article focuses on the personality variables which, according to recent research, are particularly associated with the driving of motor vehicles. The personality characteristics, of which the understanding is important for the development of a methodology for the selection of suitable candidates for the position of a driver, are described. The role of personality in a narrow sense, the specific qualities of a driver and a risky driver, the individual traits posing risk in terms of driving, and aggressiveness are also addressed.
KEY WORDS: driver, personality, safety. Technical Notes on Balloting process of selected committees of ASTM International by Karel Pospíšil, CDV – Transport Research Centre, firstname.lastname@example.org